1. Tapped density
|Tapped density||[g/l]||EN ISO 787-11|
The tapped density refers to the density of a powder after a specified compaction process under standardised conditions.
2. Apparent density
|Apparent density||[g/l]||ASTM D2854|
The apparent density of a granular product is determined by dropping a sample from a vibrating conveyor into a standard cylinder. The density is then calculated from the measured volume and mass of the sample.
3. Ash content
|Ash content||[%]||ASTM D2866|
The ash content is given in w/w percent and indicates the mineral content of the activated carbon. To determine the ash content, a sample is combusted at 650°C in a muffle furnace.
4. Moisture content (oven drying)
|Moisture content (oven drying)||[%]||ASTM D2867|
The moisture content is determined by drying a sample at 150°C in an oven.
5. Water content (Karl Fischer titration)
|Water content (Karl Fischer titration)||[%]||Karl Fischer titration|
Karl Fischer titration is a titration method in analytical chemistry that uses coulometric titration to determine trace amounts of water in a sample.
6. Volatile matter content
|Volatile matter content||[%]||CEFIC|
To determine the volatile matter content, a sample is heated for 7 minutes to 900°C, whereby the moisture content is taken into account.
7. Flash point
To determine the flash point, a sample is gradually heated along a linear curve in a hot air jet. The flash point of the sample is reached the moment there is a temperature difference of >15.0°C/min.
8. Adsorption isotherms of benzene p/ps 0.1/0.9 (calculated from cyclohexane adsorption)
|Adsorption isotherms of benzene p/ps 0.1/0.9 (calculated from cyclohexane adsorption)||[%]||CT|
This parameter is an indicator for the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon.
9. BET surface area (single point)
|BET surface area (single point)||[m²/g]||DIN ISO 9277|
Determination of the specific surface area of activated carbon by nitrogen gas adsorption based on the BET method.
10. Iodine number
|Iodine number||[mgI2/gAC]||ASTM D 4607|
The iodine number is an indicator of the porosity of an activated carbon.
The iodine number corresponds to the mass of iodine in mg that is adsorbed by 1 g of activated carbon in an aqueous solution.
11. Methylene blue value
|Methylene blue value||[g/100g]||CT|
The methylene blue number is a useful indicator to evaluate the adsorptive capacity of molecules that are similar in size to those of methylene blue, and to determine the decolorizing capacity of activated carbon.
12. CTC activity (calculated from butane adsorption)
|CTC activity (calculated from butane adsorption)||[%]||ASTM D 3460|
The carbon tetrachloride activity is the ratio (in percent) of the weight of CCl4 adsorbed by an activated carbon sample. It indicates the activation level of the material.
As carbon tetrachloride is highly toxic and possibly carcinogenic, the CTC activity is determined indirectly by measuring the butane activity.
|Butane activity||[%]||ASTM D5742|
The butane activity is a measure of the activation level of activated carbon. In this test, an activated carbon sample is saturated with butane under specified conditions.
The chemically active surface groups and the inorganic components of activated carbon can change the pH of liquids. This test is used to determine this effect. The pH is measured after extraction of the activated carbon with boiling water.
15. Water-soluble content
|Water-soluble content||[%]||ASTM D5029|
To determine the content of water solubles, an aqueous extract of the sample is produced and dried to constant weight. The parameter indicates the amount of water solubles contained in the activated carbon.
16. Acid-soluble content
To determine the content of acid solubles, a hydrochloric extract of the sample is produced and dried to constant weight.
The acid-soluble content is an indicator for the purity of the activated carbon.
17. ICP elements
For this test, the activated carbon sample is first digested and then analysed by ICP-OES for specific elements.
18. XRF analysis
XRF analysis is used to determine the elements contained in activated carbon without prior digestion.
19. Impact hardness
To determine the impact hardness, a sample of a known mass is dropped from a specific height. Through sieving, the share of particles greater than 0.5 mm is determined. This value corresponds to the impact hardness in percentage.
20. Abrasion strength
The abrasion strength is determined with the help of a vibratory grinding mill. Through sieving, the share of particles greater than 0.5 mm is determined. This value is the abrasion strength in percentage.
21. Ball pan hardness
|Ball pan hardness||[%]||ASTM D 3802|
An activated carbon sample is treated mechanically by a specific number of steel balls of a known diameter over a predefined period of time in a sieve shaker to determine its degradation stability.
22. Particle size analysis
|Particle size analysis||[%]||Laser diffraction|
The grain size distribution of a pulverised sample is determined by means of laser diffraction.
23. Sieve analysis
|Sieve analysis||[%]||DIN ISO 2395|
Standard sieves are used to mechanically separate the sample by particle size. The sieved fractions are weighed and the results are compiled in a table.
24. Isotherms of CSB
|Isotherms of CSB||mg O2/l||CT|
Isotherms of CSB materials are used to determine the adsorption capacity of activated carbon for the reduction of the CSB content in wastewater.
25. AOX content
Potentiometric titration is used to measure the AOX content of saturated activated carbon in order to assess its reactivatability.
26. Assessment of adsorption properties and mechanical state of spent activated carbon, including report
|Assessment of adsorption properties and mechanical state of spent activated carbon, including report||./.||./.|